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        托福写作之“否定”话题

        2018-05-17来源: 互联网浏览量:
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                在托福写作中,常见的错误点有哪些呢?

          有可能是题干中的逻辑错误,也有可能是话题太绝对,又或者题目现象没有实际理论基础等等。这便是很多同学难以形成连贯思路的原因。

          对此,我们先分析题目的错误点会有哪些具体体现。

          托福个别题目会体现两者联系性内容,即将A与B形成关联。我们来看一道例题:

          "When people succeed, it is because of hard work. Luck has nothing to do with success." Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position.(出自官方题库OG)

          显然,本题分析人的成功与运气,努力工作的关系,用nothing来进行对应。针对这篇文章,推荐的方法是先对两个关键词本身进行定义说明:1. 运气指的是什么?运气能给我带来什么?准确的说,它是一种机遇,较高的成功概率。2. 怎么样才算成功?事业有成,成为某一领域的领头人还是拥有至高无上的权利,亦或是达到、超越个人目标?经过分析发现两者之间不存在直接的因果关系,即因为运气好,所以成功;或者运气不好,而不会成功,都是不成立的。它们之间的逻辑存在间接对象。因此,本题的文章结构应该是:

          Ø Introduction:

          Success, an abstract concept captivating vast of individuals, stems from the hard work as generally recognized. Thus, those who endeavor to achieve success in work or study believe ceaseless effort instead of luck result in success, which I would not support.

          Ø Body 1 (concession):

          Although success comes a lot from diligence, it is not the only key factor for success.

          Ø Body 2:

          Luck is an advantage when seeking jobs, among the fierce competition.

          Ø Body 3:

          Luck is indispensable at the opportunities that a star desires to be successful.

          Ø Conclusion:

          Overall, when a person needs to be successful, whether career or study, the emphasis on hard work puts luck on the situation rather than necessity

          上述内容交代了段落论点内容。逻辑错误可以在开头里就给出定义,在我们认知的框架中进行说理,这不仅有利于考官对你的观点认同,更重要的是帮助自己定位,避免偏跑题。

          我们再来分析一篇托福独立写作题目:

          Many schools demand that the students should wear uniform. Some people think that such a practice undermines students' personality and individuality. Do you agree or disagree with the statement?

          按照上述思路,找到题目中的两个关键词:穿校服和学生个性。1. 穿校服的作用是什么?对学校而言,有哪些好处?对学生呢?2. 学生的个性是如何形成的?什么因素会影响个性?

          第一个问题的回答可以构建起我们写作的主体段落论点,第二个问题回答可以作为理由反驳题目中的“undermine”这层关系。

          Ø Introduction:

          Most schools in China mandate the wearing of uniforms...

          Ø Body 1:

          Students are in no danger of losing their individuality by wearing uniforms.

          Ø Body 2:

          Uniform gives the students a sense of community.

          Ø Body 3:

          It saves them a lot of time and money.

          Ø Conclusion:

          Uniform acts as an equalizer, contributing to the equality among students.

          以及下一篇话题:

          Some people think that people will forget their own tradition and history because they no longer wear their traditional costumes. Do you agree or disagree?

          构思(主体段):

          Ø People's preference to certain kinds of apparel has little to do with their attachment to their history and tradition.(指出题干中的逻辑错误点)

          Ø The abandoning of traditional clothes is sometimes necessitated by the changing lifestyle.

          Ø Traditional costume is only one reminder of one's tradition, and education plays a far more important role in enhancing one's understanding of one's history and culture.

          另外两篇的文章分析,向大家清楚地展示了,当逻辑漏洞在话题中出现时,我们应该形成否定态度和相应的论述方式。尽管有逻辑错误的题干较少出现在托福的作文中,但仍值得大家研究,因为考生们在平时对反驳类的文章接触比较少,缺乏足够的训练,导致在考试中发挥失利。普遍而言,我们都倾向于聆听他人想法,在肯定的基础上发表自己的态度和意见。然而,argumentation辩论性文章的反驳特征,正是今后考生需要注意和学习的。

          接下来,为了更好地让考生们明白写作的具体内容,笔者将就上述分析的第二篇题目进行写作,希望对大家有所帮助。

          Most schools in China mandate the wearing of uniforms, with support from parent and government. However, some reckon that students' personality and individuality would be undermined as the prevalence of wearing uniform, which to my mind, is inconceivable and can not hold any water as following reasons.

          Actually, students are in no danger of losing their individuality by wearing uniform. This is because their characters are developed under the long term influence of family background, parenting, schooling and social environment. To say that the uniform policy represses the natural development of students' individual character is unreasonable, at least no direct relation between both. What school emphasizes is to create a better learning atmosphere without too much self-center and peacockery.

          First, the primary reason that schools demand uniform system lies in cultivation of a good sense of community. For students, whether underage or young adults, it is conducive to foster the identity of what a student should do, letting them realize the their responsibility and thus avoiding mistaken behaviors, such as violence and committing crimes. For example, when wearing in uniform, students fret about surfing the Internet on bar or smoke in public place, not because of risk of being caught, but self-discipline, more attention on personal behaviors. These attitudes are necessitated in today' education, apart from instructing knowledge.

          In addition, the uniform dress policy spreads the concept of conservation and simplicity, so that more stress should be laid on study, instead of making them up in a fashionable way. The current society is teeming with materialistic and capitalistic thought, which would induce youngsters to overvalue outer appearance. This is not rare in Chinese high school, where most students wear clothes or shoes with famous brands like Addidas, Yeeze and Air Jardon. This "keep-up with Jones" not only misleads the pedagogical ideas, but increases family burden. It leads to a great waste of resources such as materials, fund and labor as well. Thus, to lesson peer pressure, many schools require their students to wear in uniform.

          In conclusion, without suggesting that individuality and characteristic are personal features, I reckon its formation has no direct links with the police of wearing school uniform, which acts as an equalizers, helping them concentrate on study and avoid unnecessary comparison.



        本文关键字:写作话题,写作错误分析,托福写作题目
        编辑: tang
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